git repository

The primary repository


We are using the version control system Git as our main collaboration tool. You can use it to obtain all the source code and content files you need to take part in the development or to create your own fork. See the Wikipedia article about Git and the Git homepage for details about Git.

Initial setup

With Git we have one repository for each project. The central repositories through which we cooperate are hosted on

We’ve categorized all projects related to Mana, so you can easily see the complete list of the Mana repositories on GitHub. The projects have different clone URLs for read-only or developer access. The URL for developer access is called the “push URL”, since it allows you to push commits into the repository via ssh. The list below is for your convenience.

Project Read-only URL Push URL (Developers only) Atom feed

Git uses ssh’s private/public key authentication for identifying committers. For development purposes you should clone the “push url”, but this requires that you have:


By cloning a project you get a local checkout of its source and a copy of its complete history. Use the following command to clone a project:

$ git clone <clone_url>

If you want to have all projects in one place, you probably want to do something like this:

$ mkdir mana
$ cd mana
$ git clone
$ git clone

or for all of them in one go (after the cd mana step):

$ for repo in  mana manaserv manaweb ; do git clone git://${repo}.git ; done

Working with Git


From now on, a commit is something you do locally. Others won’t see your change on GitHub unless you push it there. You’ll notice committing is very fast, and you can commit multiple times before you decide to push. You can also make corrections to your last commit.

Before you start committing, it is important to identify yourself to Git, so that it can include the correct authorship information with your commit. You are no longer identified with a username, as was the case with Subversion. You can read exactly how to do this, as well as other useful information geared towards people switching from Subversion, on this page:


Once you have committed some stuff, you can push these to the repository on GitHub using git push. This works since by default the push command pushes to a remote called origin, and this remote is automatically set up when you clone. However, the push will fail if there have been new commits on the remote repository. In that case, you’ll first have to pull in these changes (just like with Subversion, however Subversion allowed this as long as the same files weren't touched, Git doesn’t).


When you want to get the latest changes from the repository on GitHub, you generally use git pull. However, note that this command does not work when you have local changes. Also, when you have local commits, the pull command will generate a merge commit (and before that you may have to resolve some conflicts).

If you don’t want to create merge commits, but would rather stack your local commits on top of any incoming commits, you should use git pull --rebase. This rebases your local commits on top of the incoming ones. You should never do this when you have pushed these commits elsewhere, so only do it when you are sure the commits are only on your machine.

If you have local changes and want to update your checkout, then there are several options:

Resolving conflicts

Rather similar to Subversion. When there are conflicts, a merge or a rebase will add conflict markers into files. Use git status to see which files remain in conflict and use git add on files to mark them as resolved. When you did a merge and you have resolved all conflicts, you commit. When you were doing a rebase of several commits, you do git rebase --continue instead.

Patch making

Git has an easy way to send patches to other people to review and commit for you. After you have made a commit, git format-patch will make a patch out of it. The patch includes your author information the commit message you gave, and all the changes to be done. The recipient can just git am [patch file] to apply the commit. After it has been pushed, you'll need to remove the patch from your local repository, git reset --hard HEAD^ will do that. If you don't do that, you'll get a conflict when your patch is pulled from the central repository.

Good to know

Git has several useful commands to figure out the current state of your repository, your files and what recently changed. Below is a non-exhaustive list of commands that are useful to know:

There are also additional applications that help you with using Git:

Git on Windows

When using Git on Windows you might use msysgit. If you notice that some files seem to have changed after doing a fresh clone, you may want to disable core.autocrlf using git config core.autocrlf false. However, this is not recommended for contributors since the setting makes sure you don’t commit Windows style newlines into the repository. When encountering this problem it is usually best to consult other developers about the affected files.